Equality in Women Sports Gender equality in sports is something women have been trying to pursue over and over again. As in professional publicity of sports, men vs. women is no competition, men blow women out of the park on this issue. Men are more dominant in the sports world, and women just live in the shadows. Women are not given the chance they deserve to prove that they are just as good, so as of now, the media presumes them to be inferior to men. The myth many people believe for this reason, is the simple answer that women are not as strong as men.Others say that womenâ€™s sports are not as popular because they are not as entertaining to watch. Many people have different reasons for why women do not get the equality that they deserve, but there are more reasons for why women should be just as successful in professional sports as men. Women in sports began with very few opportunities, until a few pioneers paved a way for the future of women sports. Such female athletes that paved the way for other females were Babe Didrikson and Wilma Rudolph.Babe competed in the 1932 Olympics and qualified for five events, but at the time, women were only allowed to complete in three. Babe also took up golfing and won 55 tournaments in all, with 13 consecutive in 1946. Wilma Rudolph was another admirable female athlete, whose forte was in track. Rudolph was the first women to win three gold medals in the 1960 Olympics. Her winnings allowed for more women to take part in what was previously, all male track and field events. Both of these remarkable female athletes are recognized among ESPNâ€™S Sports Century Greatest Athletes, ranked 10th and 41st (Elyachar and Moag, n. . ). During the Olympics, at the time of Babe Didrikson and Wilma Rudolph, women were allowed to compete in various events, such as swimming diving, tennis, and short distance sprints, but were not allowed to compete in the marathons. This is because experts said women could damage their organs from all the destructive bouncing and long endurance that the marathon required. It was not until 1984, when women were allowed to run the marathon in the Olympics, that a woman by the name of Benoit Samuelson ran the first marathon.Benoit ran 26 miles in competitive time, proving that the female body could handle just as much as the menâ€™s (â€œJoan Benoit Samuelson,â€ 2007. ) The universal myth that everyone assumes is the reason for why men are so much more dominant in sports than women is that they are stronger. It is commonly believed that women are not as skilled as men in sports because they lack muscle strength. According to the GenneX Heathcare Technologies, Inc. (1999), in recent studies, this myth was proven fiction.Up until this study, doctors would beg their female patients not to perform in any sports activities because they said their bodies were too weak to handle such pressures. Since women have been out of the sports scene for so long because of this myth of weakness, men have been dominating because they have had so much more time to perfect their skills. Women now have a lot of ground to cover since they have been so inactive for so many years. The best womenâ€™s marathon time was recorded at only 10 minutes behind menâ€™s, proving that women are catching up to men and their bodies can handle anything a manâ€™s can.The woman who set the womenâ€™s world record marathon time in an incredible 2:15:25 was Paula Radcliffe (Msn, 2007). But thereâ€™s a catch to this recording. Since male sports have been around for so much longer, they have been recording for that much longer as well. Women; however, have only been recording since 1964, which means that since they just starting running these marathons they can easily pass the male record. According to Kevin Drum (2001), â€œWomen might even complete evenly with men in the 100 meter dash by around 2010 or 2020, and the marathon by 2050. As of more recently, women are starting to participate in sports that were only meant for men, such as ice hockey and boxing. These extreme sports require skill and physical endurance, which if a woman can play this kind of sport, means that she is capable of playing any sport, just as good as any man. The only reason that women are lagging behind men thus far is because men have had so much more time to improve on their sports. Men have been practicing and perfecting sports ever since they were first created, women, in comparison, have had no chance to do this.If women started off at the same time as men, they would easily have the same performance and same skill level. In 1972, Title IX was passed to make women participate in sports more. Title IX was brought to the publicâ€™s attention with the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950â€™s and 60s. This law states, â€œNo person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education programs or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. â€ (Elyachar and Moag, n. d. ).This law gave women the right to be athletes. It opened new opportunities to women as more colleges and high school were forced to have a certain number to sports teams. This new law paved a way for new female athletes. Men at this time were starting to form leagues of their own, while women were first starting to participate in sports. When basketball was first in existence, men were allowed to play by the rules however they liked, but women were supposed to maintain proper decorum, so female basketball players were not allowed to snatch or dribble the ball more than three times.Women basketball players also started off played three and three rather than five on five, and on half a court. Many people believed that women could not handle the pressure and strength to play like men. Females were not considered strong enough to play a full court game until 1971 (Rick Torbett 2007. ) Five year later in 1976, the first professional basketball league for women was formed. This league consisted of eight teams, but was not very successful. In 1997, the Womanâ€™s National Basketball Association (WNBA) was founded with 12 teams, six from the Eastern Conference and six from the Western Conference.The first year running attendance reach nearly one million and it had 65 million viewers, and is currently still running today. The WNBA had shed some light on womenâ€™s ability to be equal. This league has also opened opportunities for girls, as most of them look up to them as idols. Womenâ€™s basketball really sprung into popularity within the end of the 21st century. Basketball instructor Rick Torbett (2007) states, â€œI saw Nancy Lierbman grab, not touch, but grab the rim at 5â€³9! I was 6â€³3 and only jumping a little higher than her! Those girls could play, and were actually flat out better than some of the boys. Rick Torbett, an expert at studying the tactics of basketball, states that from his studies, women show the same skill level as men. This proves that women can perform just as well as me do in this sport. At the end of his report, Tobett concluded with, â€œOh yeah, there is one definite difference between boys and girls basketball, to quote my friend, Hall of Famer Rick Barryâ€¦ â€œTheyâ€™re a lot prettier. â€ If there is absolutely no difference with men vs. women in basketball, why canâ€™t the rest of the world notice womenâ€™s basketball more? It is just as exciting as men and involves the same exact game.As more time passes, and once more people start to realize the skill level of women, the WNBA will be just as popular as menâ€™s. The first extremely successful womenâ€™s league was in 1943 and was called the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League. This league was the most successful womenâ€™s league ever, and the major reason behind this leagueâ€™s popularity is the fact that it was played during the Second World War. While Americaâ€™s men were on the battlefield, Americaâ€™s women were giving the rest of the country entertainment for their favorite pastime.Even during this league, women were still not given equality. These women were chosen to compete in the league had to attend charm school before to ensure the natural style of a womenâ€™s grace despite vigorous play (JSW 1999). Even then, most people were against this league because they strongly believed that this much stress and endurance would harm the female reproductive system. The movie, A League of Their Own, was based around this league, and it showed the dramatic sexist experiences these women had to go through just to play. In the end, the fans loved it, and just as much as they loved menâ€™s.This league ended when the war did, as all the men came back to claim their sport, the women were sent back to their roles as housewives (Riverdeep Interactive Learning 2007). This league was at one point, the most successful and popular sport. Because a majority of the men were fighting in the Second World War, only women were left to compete in sports. The only barrier causing the problem of no womenâ€™s baseball league is the fact that no one would watch it. If the country loved this sport played by women as much as they did in the 1940s, then they can still love it today.Women should be allowed to have their own league again, and be able to build on form what they started in the 1940s. By far the most successful womenâ€™s sport is tennis. This womenâ€™s sport has gained so much popularity to viewers because women have been catching up to men. In 1973 when womenâ€™s tennis was not as prominent as menâ€™s, Bobby Riggs challenged Billie Jean King to tennis match that became widely known as the â€œBattle of the Sexes. â€ Bobby Riggs was the world champion tennis player in 1939, at the age of 16. Billie Jean King was the womenâ€™s lib leader at the age of 29, and had won 20 titles at Wimbledon, aking her the richest tennis player, with an income of $100,000 a year. Bobby, now at the age of 55 wanted to prove to the world that men were better athletes so he challenged a match against Billie boasting that a woman was no match for him. Bobby even went as far as wearing a menâ€™s liberation t-shirt to the match to make matters even worse. On top of that, he even rode into the tennis courts in a carriage pulled by women. In the end Billie Jean beat Bobby in three straight sets of tennis by simply wearing him out with long rallies. The final scores were 6-4, 6-3, and 6-3. After the match Bobby stated, â€œShe was too good, too fast.She returned all my passing shots and made a great plays off of them. â€ (Essortment 2002) This proves that women can out beat men, and that men do not give them enough creditability. Even though there was an immense age difference between the two, the winnings of Billie Jean gave women confidence that women are just as good as men. This winning set a new era for women, an era of strength and determination to be just as good. Also women did not get paid as much as men did, until now. Women are finally being recognized as equal athletes to males, and this is the first sport that women have practically gained their equality (Sportingo 2007).Besides the physical strength behind athletics that makes people think that women are not as serious in sports as men, there is the reason behind the advertisement. Women athletes are not known for their talent, they are known for their appearance. In mostly all women sport adâ€™s the women are beautiful, making people believe that women athletics is a joke (Carty, V 2005) For example, Nike recently came out with an ad thatâ€™s focus was to reshape the ideal female image from a fragile figure to a strong, toned build. In the ad, there is a woman who has an oversized, muscular backside, wearing boyshort underwear.On the side, the text reads, â€œMy butt is big, but thatâ€™s fine, those who scorn it are invited to kiss it. â€ (Youngblood 2007) The main purpose of this ad is to prove that women are strong and tough, but the message that it really sends out is sexualized. This ad asks the question, how should women athletes be portrayed, with strength or with femininity that sometimes pushes in exploitation of the female body? Mary Jo Kane, director of Tucker Center for Research on Girls and Women in Sport stated, â€œMedia should represent the reality of sports, combining beauty, strength and power; showing a female athlete when she fails and when she is ictorious; and accurately depicting what and who women are in sports. â€ (Youngblood 2007) An extreme example of female athletes putting themselves out there in the media in a non- athletes kind of way, was when German Olympic gold medalist Katarina Witt posed nude in Playboy in 1998, a decade after she won her Olympic medals. (2007) This ad in no way is going to make people recognize her for her winnings in the Olympics; instead she is going to be known as a nude model posing for the human interest. The media is a major reason that women are not taken seriously in sports.In ads for male athletes they are fully clothed and are trying to show off their skill level and achievement within the sports industry. This is not the case for women, some of the time they are showing off their skills, but most of the time they are showing off their looks and sexuality. Once females are seen for their skill, then the world will take them seriously and they can pursue their careers as professional athletes and can complete evenly with men. Women in sports have come a long way since the early 1900s. From barely competing in the Olympics to dominating in tennis, womenâ€™s sports are slowly increasing.Many people still refuse to accept that womenâ€™s sports are serious and successful, because of all the bumps in the road, like the media. Once the world can see a female athlete for the talented person she is, then womenâ€™s sports will be just as successful as menâ€™s. Women have come so far in pursuing their athletic ability in comparison to men. They have done this by increasing their endurance and strength, internally and externally, and one day very soon a woman is going to break that record marathon time held by a man.Sources Eylachar, R. , & Moag, L. (n. d. ) The Growth of Womenâ€™s Sports. Retrieved September 24, 2007 from http://www. moagandcompany. com/i_a/Dec_02_womens_sports. pdf No author. (2007. ) Joan Benoit Samuelson â€“ A Born Athlete. Retrieved October 3, 2007, from http://sports. jrank. org/pages/418/Benoit-Samuelson-Joan-Born-Athlete. html GenneX Healthcare Technologies, Inc. (1999). Men vs. Women in Sports. Retrieved September 24, 2007, from http://www. womenshealth. org/a/women_men_sports. htm MSN. (2007). Are Women
2012-07410March 15, 2013 ENG 2 G-3RDraft no. 1 The Time Travelerâ€™s Wife (Film) A Reaction Paper Why is love intensified by absence? (Niffenegger, 2003) The Time Traveler's Wife is a romantic drama film directed by Robert Schwentke and was based on a novel by Audrey Niffenegger of the same title. The film tells the story of Henry DeTamble (Eric Bana), a librarian who suffers from a genetic disorder that causes him to jump back and forth in time, and Clare Abshire (Rachel McAdams), as they endeavor to live a happy and normal life.In the early 1970s, a six year-old Henry survives a car accident wherein his mother died. The tension before the impact enabled him to travel back two weeks before the accident. He was then transported back into the present and witnessed the death of his mother before him. An older version of him tries to help Henry by explaining that he is indeed a time traveler. Henry finds himself living the past, present, and future at the same time. In 1991, Henry meets for the first time an art student named Clare.Though she is delighted to see him, Henry was not able to recognize her. She later reveals that the future Henry time traveled and met the six year old Clare. They develop a relationship and Henry finally felt permanence in his life. Subsequently, the couple enters a married life which will be teemed with obstacles brought about by Henryâ€™s condition. The film Time Travelerâ€™s Wife employed time travel as one of main characterâ€™s flaw and strong point at the same time expressing the love story that attracts most of the women audience.Its title and movie trailer just provides sufficient ideas that will make you think about it and finally watch the film. Considering the fact that it was primarily based on a book, it can be posited that the story was crammed and made to fit in the specific amount of time. This caused the movie to lose its richness which left the supporting characters with little exposure who may have contributed to the audienceâ€™s understanding and interpretation and to the storyâ€™s further development.Moreover, the film focused too much on the love story of Henry and Clare and ignored the other charactersâ€™ involvement and influence on the main charactersâ€™ decision as opposed to the book. Critiques aside, the story was very poignant. It provided various themes such as the importance of time, love, family, marriage, sex and reality. Love was expressed and interpreted by the characters in various waysâ€”physical lovemaking, Clareâ€™s patience (or impatience) for waiting Henry from his travels, and sacrifices that each of them made in their pursuit of happiness.It was emphasized that love is an important aspect of life that overcomes and recognizes no obstacles. The film also gives the audience the idea of struggle between life as something that is already written and pre-determined, and the capacity or power of our free will and choices. Sex and racism, to some extent, is depicted in the movie. It shows the importance of physical connection to the intimacy of the main characters. In addition, the character of Eric Bana criticized the Republicans and hunters.Lastly, versions of reality were presentedâ€”that of Henryâ€™s and of Clareâ€™s. It gives the audience the impression that reality is subjective and thereby influenced by emotions. Time Travelerâ€™s Wife can be considered as a carpe diem movie. Although it contains a timeline structure that is quite confusing for the viewers and disturbing scenes and language, the film earns the audience awe and tears by the story of two lovers who are victims of the unpredictable fate.
Observing Mitosis In The Cells Of Garlic Biology Essay
Aim: To observe the stages of the cell cycle in living tissue, generally and specifically in the meristematic cells of the root of garlic and hence consider the duration of the stages of mitosis in relation to the whole cell cycle.
TheÂ cell cycle, orÂ cell-division cycle, is the series of events that takes place in aÂ cellÂ leading to its division and duplication (replication). In cells without a nucleus (prokaryotes), the cell cycle occurs via a process termedÂ binary fission. In cells with a nucleus (eukaryotes), the cell cycle can be divided in two brief periods:Â interphase-during which the cell grows, accumulating nutrients needed for mitosis andduplicating its DNA-and theÂ mitosisÂ (M) phase, during which the cell splits itself into two distinct cells, often called daughter cells. The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celledÂ fertilized eggÂ develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by whichÂ hair,Â skin,Â blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. 
Figure 1: The cell cycle
Mitosis is the process that facilitates the equal partitioning of replicated chromosomes into two identical groups. Before partitioning can occur, the chromosomes must become aligned so that the separation process can occur in an orderly fashion. The alignment of replicated chromosomes and their separation into two groups is a process that can be observed in virtually all eukaryotic cells. 
Both the alignment and separation processes are the consequence of the chromosomes interacting with filamentous proteinaceous structures, known as microtubules. The microtubules become organized into a biconical array known as a spindle, which forms early in mitosis, and then disassembles as mitosis nears completion. Mitotic spindles are visible in living cells with the polarizing light microscope. Some of the spindle microtubules become attached to the chromosomes at sites known as kinetochores. The kinetochores cannot be seen with the light microscope, but they reside near the place on the chromosome known as its centromere, which can be observed with the light microscope. There are two kinetochores on each replicated chromosome (one on each chromatid), and when the replicated chromosome splits apart at its centromere at the onset of anaphase, each daughter chromosome possesses one centromere and one kinetochore. The linkages between kinetochores and microtubules are thought to be central in controlling both the positioning of the replicated chromosome at the central portion of the spindle during the alignment phase, and in moving the daughter chromosomes apart after they split at their centromeres. The separation of daughter cells from each other is a process known as cytokinesis, and is separate from mitosis. In cytokinesis, animal and plant cells differ considerably from each other. These differences are the consequence of having or not having a cell wall. Cytokinesis in fungi reveals some similarities with plant cells, and exhibits other features unique to the group.
Figure 1: Illustration of the process by which somatic cells multiply and divide.
The specimen used in this experiment is the root of garlic where the meristematic cells are actively dividing. Cell division in flowering plants takes place in particular regions of the plant calledÂ meristems. Cells in meristems are not specialized for any particular function and divide repeatedly by mitosis. Some of the daughter cells remain meristematic; others cease dividing and become differentiated into appropriate cell types depending on their position. The root tip meristem is usually a denser white and more rounded than the cut end. Chromosomes in root tip tissue are made visible with the stain. Dividing cells (if present) will show up clearly with chromosomes in different forms according to the stage of mitosis. Individual chromosomes (as tightly-coiled threads) are visible during anaphase. The links between the cellulose walls of plant cells are broken down by the treatment with hydrochloric acid. This ensures that the stain can penetrate the cells and allows the tissue to be squashed out one cell thick. 
Objective: Mitosis occurs in four phases as a continuous process without break in between the phases. Before mitosis, the cells are in rest during interphase stage. The activity of chromosomes is significant in determining the stages of cell division. Therefore, to observe the chromosomes, the root cells are stained. There are two types of stains used; the toluidine blue stain. The toluidine blue stain causes the cytoplasm to appear light blue in colour while the chromosomes appear dark blue. In this experiment, the cells in the root tip of garlic is squashed, stained and observed under compound microscope to observe the stages mitosis.
Apparatus: Compound microscope, 2 Watch glasses, dropper, tissue paper, microscope slide, cover slip, forceps, mounted needles, stopwatch, scalpel or sharp knife, eye protection, small sample tube, filter paper, eye goggles.
Materials: Toluidine blue stain, 1M hydrochloric acid, 1 clove of garlic with roots, cold distilled water
1-2 cm of root tips of growing garlic roots are cut off. The root tips are ensured to be chosen from those which are white and have a firm rounded end.
The root tips are put into watch glass containing 2 cm3 of 1 M hydrochloric acid for exactly 5 minutes.
The root tips are then transferred into watch glass containing approximately 5 cm3 cold water, and left for 4-5 minutes. The root tips are then dried on filter papers.
Figure 3 : The root tips are transferred into glass with cold water
The root tips are then transferred onto a clean microscope slide. 4-5 mm of the root tips are cut and kept, while the rest are discarded.
The root tips are gently broken up with a mounted needle by a process called maceration.
Figure 4 : The root tips are break up
A small drop of toluidine blue stain is added to the root tips and left for 2 minutes.
The tips are covered with a coverslip, and blotted firmly with several layers of tissue. The coverslip is pressed gently to spread the root tip.
The samples are then viewed under the microscope (x40 magnifications) and the nuclei of the cells are located.
The microscope lens is switched to higher power (x100, x400 and x1000 magnifications and look for cells with chromosomes.
Figure 5 : The cells are observed under light microscope
The regularly shaped, actively dividing cells are focused and counted for every phases of mitosis.
The data obtained are recorded and tabulated.
Stages Of Mitosis
Table 1 : The stages of mitosis and the respective cell count and percentage
Calculation of the mitotic index :
Mitotic index = number of cell containing visible chromosome
total number of cells in the field of view
Mitotic index =
Interphase is the period where the cell prepares itself before cell division. It is a phase before the mitosis. The chromosomes are uncoiled and it fills the nucleus. DNA replication occurs during this stage. The nuclear envelope is visible the centrioles appear and so do the nucleolus.
During prophase, the replicated chromosomes undergo extensive condensation or coiling. The chromosomes are greatly thickened and shortened but are still contained within the nuclear envelope. Prophase ends with the sudden dispersion of the nuclear envelope. The chromosomes start to coil, shorten, and become distinct. The mitotic spindle or polar fibers begin to form from the poles of the cell towards the equator.
Chromosomes line up along the equator of the cell or what is called the metaphase plate. Polar fibers have reached the centromeres of the chromosomes and have begun interacting with them. Each kinetochore, plate like structure of the replicated chromosome is pointed toward one side of the spindle. The replicated chromosomes converge toward the center of the spindle, and once they get there, significant movements cease. On either sides of each centromere are sites for kinetochore microtubule.
Anaphase commences with the initial splitting of sister chromatids at their centromeres. These daughter chromosomes then begin to separate from each other, each moving away from the metaphase plate and toward one of the two spindle pole regions. Anaphase ends when the daughter chromosomes reach the end of the cell. Since the sister chromatids are identical copies of the original chromosomes, each pole of the cell will have a set of complete and identical chromosomes as in the parent cell.
In telophase, the daughter chromosomes arrive at the spindle poles and are eventually redistributed into chromatin. After complete separation of the chromosomes and their extrusion to the spindle poles, the nuclear membrane begins to reform around each group of chromosomes at the opposite ends of the cell. The nucleoli also reappear in what will eventually become the two new cell nuclei. A new nuclear membrane forms. The new cell walls grow to form the two new, identical daughter cells. The cytokinesis process starts to happen in order to complete the division of the two new cells.
After observing the mitosis process, we knew that percentages of the cells in each stage are different. In the experiment using toluidine blue stain, we observed that 22 cells out of 35 cells undergone interphase which covered 62.9% of the cells. There are 15 cells undergone prophase covering 14.3% of the cells. Metaphase and anaphase have the same percentage which is 8.6%. While 2 cells undergone telophase which covered 5.7%. The mitotic index using toluldine blue stain is which suggest that only 37.14% of the cells in our view were undergoing mitosis and the rest are still in interphase. The percentage of cells in each stage is related to the length of time a cell spends in each stage of mitosis. The greater the percentage of cells in a stage, the longer the time spent by each cell in that stage.
Based on the table 1, it is clearly shown that the largest percentage of cells is found to be at interphase. Interphase is often referred as the resting phase. Interphase is the stage in which the cells prepare themselves to undergo mitosis. Since interphase has the largest percentage of cells, therefore each cell spends the longest time being at interphase stage. Metaphase and anaphase occupies the same length of time and same percentage of cells. This means cells spend almost equal length of time being at both phases. Telophase on the other hand, has the lowest percentage which means the shortest period of time a cell spends is during telophase. Prophase, being the first stage of mitosis has the second highest percentage of cells. It means compared to metaphase, anaphase and telophase, prophase is the stage of mitosis in which each cell spends the most time. From the results, we knew that most of the cells spent longer time in interphase because cell growth, replication of the chromosomes, and many other activities are taking place during this time. The cells need to prepare first for the mitotic division to occur. On the other hand, based on results on table 2, is it clearly shown that, the size of cell during interphase is the smallest among all followed by the size of cell during prophase, metaphase, anaphase and finally the size of cell is the biggest during telophase. This is because, during interphase the cell will never grow in size exactly as the cell prepares itself for cell division. Meanwhile, during telophase the cell actually splitting into two daughter cells and it is obvious that the cell would have grown in size.
This experiment use the garlic root tips tissue for observing the mitosis process because the stages of development in plant growth can be distinctly observed at this part which is known as meristem. This meristem is actively divided by mitosis. So, every stage of mitosis can be observed clearly. We ensure that our results are reliable because we use 3 samples of root tip. This could minimize the error during this experiment and we can compare the results for each sample. Besides that, we stained the samples using toluidine blue first so that we can observe the chromosomes clearly. We believed that our results are valid because the outcomes from the experiment are the same with what we expect based on the theory and our results are quite similar with the other groups results. Not only that, the usage of toluidine blue is reliable, cheaper and easy to handle with. In a way, it is simple and it helps produce results quicker compared to the usage of other staining.
Mitosis can be divided into four different stages; prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. In conclusion, the mitosis process is a random process. So, different types of sample will have different length of time for mitosis to complete. Other than that, the longest stage of cell cycle is interphase with the highest percentage followed by metaphase and anaphase while the shortest stage is telophase with the lowest percentage. The greater the percentage of cells in a stage, the longer the time spent by each cell in that stage. Hypothesis is accepted.
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